Networks, Norms and HIV/STI Risk Among Youth (NNAHRAY)
Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Project dates: August 2000 - July 2005
Principal Investigator: Friedman, Sam

The NNAHRAY project was a network study of the sexual and injection partners of IDUs and of other young adults in Brooklyn, NY. Previous research found very low levels of injection drug use and HIV among young adults living in Bushwick, Brooklyn, an area with large numbers of injection drug users (IDUs), and where at least 30% of injection drug users were then infected with HIV.  The study sought to identify factors related to the relatively low infection rates among youth, determine the characteristics of their networks, and their relationship to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Network concepts and methods can contribute to our understanding of how HIV is spread, how risk behaviors are influenced, and how to improve prevention efforts. The information learned will contribute to developing policy and programs for HIV and STI prevention.

Abstract on NIH RePORTER
Related Publications
Dyer TV, Khan MR, Sandoval M, Acheampong A, Regan R, Bolyard M, Mateu-Gelabert P, Friedman SR (2017).
Drug use and sexual HIV transmission risk among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), men who have sex with men only (MSMO), and men who have sex with women only (MSWO) and the female partners of MSMW and MSWO: A network perspective
AIDS and Behavior, 21 (12), 3590-3598. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1736-3. PMCID: PMC5568510.

Dyer TP, Khan MR, Sandoval M, Bolyard M, Friedman SR (2015).
Substance use and sexual risk among men who have sex with men and women and their female partners
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146, e271. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.09.202.

Friedman SR, Mateu-Gelabert P, Sandoval M (2011).
Group sex events amongst non-gay drug users: An understudied risk environment
International Journal of Drug Policy, 22 (1), 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2010.06.004. PMCID: PMC3019255.

Khan MR, Epperson MW, Mateu-Gelabert P, Bolyard M, Sandoval M, Friedman SR (2011).
Incarceration, sex with an STI- or HIV-infected partner, and infection with an STI or HIV in Bushwick, Brooklyn, NY: A social network perspective
American Journal of Public Health, 101 (6), 1110-1117. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.184721. PMCID: PMC3093283.

Rossi D, Zunino Singh D, Pawlowicz MP, Touze G, Bolyard M, Mateu-Gelabert P, Sandoval M, Friedman SR (2011).
Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey
Harm Reduction Journal, 8, 2. doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-8-2. PMCID: PMC3039540.

Pawlowicz MP, Zunino Singh DS, Rossi D, Touze G, Wolman G, Bolyard M, Sandoval M, Flom PL, Mateu-Gelabert P, Friedman SR (2010).
Drug use and peer norms among youth in a high-risk drug use neighbourhood in Buenos Aires
Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 17 (5), 544-559. doi: 10.3109/09687630802669585.

Friedman SR, Rossi D, Braine N (2009).
Theorizing “Big Events” as a potential risk environment for drug use, drug-related harm and HIV epidemic outbreaks
International Journal of Drug Policy, 20 (3), 283-291. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2008.10.006.

Khan MR, Bolyard M, Sandoval M, Mateu-Gelabert P, Krauss B, Aral SO, Friedman SR (2009).
Social and behavioral correlates of sexually transmitted infection- and HIV-discordant sexual partnerships in Bushwick, Brooklyn, New York
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51 (4), 470-485. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181a2810a. PMCID: PMC3754807.

Friedman SR, Bolyard M, Khan M, Maslow C, Sandoval M, Mateu-Gelabert P, Krauss B, Aral SO (2008).
Group sex events and HIV/STI risk in an urban network
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 49 (4), 440-446. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181893f31. PMCID: PMC3410442.

Friedman SR, Bolyard M, Sandoval M, Mateu-Gelabert P, Maslow C, Zenilman J (2008).
Relative prevalence of different sexually transmitted infections in HIV-discordant sexual partnerships: Data from a risk network study in a high-risk New York neighbourhood
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 84 (1), 17-18. doi: 10.1136/sti.2007.026815.

Mateu-Gelabert P, Bolyard M, Maslow C, Sandoval M, Flom PL, Friedman SR (2008).
For the common good: Measuring residents’ efforts to protect their community from drug- and sex-related harm
Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS (SAHARA J), 5 (3), 144-157. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2008.9724913.

Friedman SR, Bolyard M, Maslow C, Mateu-Gelabert P, Sandoval M, Ritvo P, Zenilman J (2007).
Dificultades potenciales en la implementacion a nivel comunitario de la vacunacion contra el HIV: Lecciones de la vacunacion contra la hepatitis B
Actualizaciones en SIDA, 15 (58), 139-147.

Friedman SR, Bolyard M, Mateu-Gelabert P, Goltzman P, Pawlowicz MP, Singh DZ, Touze G, Maslow C, Sandoval M, Flom PL (2007).
Some data-driven reflections on priorities in AIDS network research
AIDS and Behavior, 11 (5), 641-651. doi: 10.1007/s10461-006-9166-7.

Friedman SR, de Jong W, Rossi D, Touze G, Rockwell R, Des Jarlais DC, Elovich R (2007).
Harm reduction theory: Users’ culture, micro-social indigenous harm reduction, and the self-organization and outside-organizing of users’ groups
International Journal of Drug Policy, 18 (2), 107-117. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.006. PMCID: PMC1945155.

Friedman SR, Mateu-Gelabert P, Curtis R, Maslow C, Bolyard M, Sandoval M, Flom PL (2007).
Social capital or networks, negotiations, and norms? A neighborhood case study
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32 (6S), S160-S170. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.02.005. PMCID: PMC1995560.

Blankenship KM, Friedman SR, Dworkin S, Mantell JE (2006).
Structural interventions: Concepts, challenges and opportunities for research
Journal of Urban Health, 83 (1), 59-72. doi: 10.1007/s11524-005-9007-4. PMCID: PMC1473169.

Friedman SR, Touze G (2006).
Policy bereft of research or theory: A failure of harm reduction science
International Journal of Drug Policy, 17 (2), 133-135. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2005.11.004.

Friedman SR, Kippax SC, Phaswana-Mafuya N, Rossi D, Newman CE (2006).
Emerging future issues in HIV/AIDS social research
AIDS, 20 (7), 959-965. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000222066.30125.b9.

Friedman SR, Rossi D, Flom PL (2006).
“Big events” and networks
Connections, 27 (1), 9-14.

Friedman SR, Bolyard M, Maslow C, Mateu-Gelabert P, Sandoval M (2005).
Harnessing the power of social networks to reduce HIV risk
Focus: A Guide to AIDS Research and Counseling, 20 (1), 5-6.

Krahn MD, John-Baptiste A, Yi Q, Doria A, Remis RS, Ritvo P, Friedman S (2005).
Potential cost-effectiveness of a preventive hepatitis C vaccine in high risk and average risk populations in Canada
Vaccine, 23 (13), 1549-1558. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.09.023.

Mateu-Gelabert P, Maslow C, Flom PL, Sandoval M, Bolyard M, Friedman SR (2005).
Keeping it together: Stigma, response, and perception of risk in relationships between drug injectors and crack smokers, and other community residents
AIDS Care, 17 (7), 802-813. doi: 10.1080/09540120500100486.

Rhodes T, Singer M, Bourgois P, Friedman SR, Strathdee SA (2005).
The social structural production of HIV risk among injecting drug users
Social Science and Medicine, 61 (5), 1026-1044. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.12.024.

Friedman SR, Maslow C, Bolyard M, Sandoval M, Mateu-Gelabert P, Neaigus A (2004).
Urging others to be healthy: “Intravention” by injection drug users as a community prevention goal
AIDS Education and Prevention, 16 (3), 250-263. doi: 10.1521/aeap. .

Friedman SR, Aral S (2001).
Social networks, risk-potential networks, health, and disease
Journal of Urban Health, 78 (3), 411-418. doi: 10.1093/jurban/78.3.411. PMCID: PMC3455917.