BACKGROUND: Persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) are at increased risk for severe illness due to COVID-19. The degree to which this due to HIV infection, comorbidities, or other factors remains unclear.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 in New York State between March and June 2020, during the first wave of the pandemic, to compare outcomes among 853 PLWDH and 1,621 persons without diagnosed HIV (controls). We reviewed medical records to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at admission, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes between PLWDH and controls. HIV-related characteristics were evaluated among PLWDH.
RESULTS: PLWDH were significantly more likely to have cardiovascular (matched prevalence-ratio [mPR], 1.22 [95% CI, 1.07-1.40]), chronic liver (mPR, 6.71 [95% CI, 4.75-9.48]), chronic lung (mPR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.40-2.21]), and renal diseases (mPR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.50-2.09]). PLWDH were less likely to have elevated inflammatory markers upon hospitalization. Relative to controls, PLWDH were 15% less likely to require mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 15% less likely to require admission to the intensive care unit. No significant differences were found in in-hospital mortality. PLWDH on tenofovir-containing regimens were significantly less likely to require mechanical ventilation or ECMO (risk-ratio [RR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.55-0.96]) and to die (RR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57-0.96]) than PLWDH on non-tenofovir-containing regimens.
CONCLUSIONS: While hospitalized PLWDH and controls had similar likelihood of in-hospital death, chronic disease profiles and degree of inflammation upon hospitalization differed. This may signal different mechanisms leading to severe COVID-19.
Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2-related hospital outcomes among and between persons living with and without diagnosed HIV infection in New York State
PLoS One, 17 (5), e0268978. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268978. PMCID: PMC9132290.