Cisgender sexual minority men (SMM) and transgender women are disproportionately vulnerable to HPV-related anal cancer, but little is known about longitudinal predictors of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection in this population. As such, this analysis aims to identify factors associated with incident anal hrHPV infection in a diverse cohort of young SMM and transgender women. This study of HPV infection, nested within a larger cohort study, took place between October 2015 and January 2020. Participants completed a brief computer survey assessing HPV symptomatology, risk, and prevention alongside multi-site testing, in addition to biannual cohort study assessments. In the analytic sample of 137 participants, 31.6% tested positive for an anal hrHPV infection, with 27.0% and 29.9% testing positive for incident anal hrHPV infections at Visits 2 and 3, respectively. When adjusting for time between study visits, participants had significantly greater odds of incident anal hrHPV at Visit 2 if they had a concurrent HSV infection (AOR = 5.08 [1.43, 18.00]). At Visit 3, participants had significantly greater odds of incident anal hrHPV infection if they reported a greater number of sex partners in the previous month (AOR = 1.25 [1.03, 1.51]). Prevalence of cancer-causing HPV at baseline was high and many participants tested positive for additional types of anal hrHPV at subsequent visits. Risk for newly detected anal hrHPV infection was significantly associated with biological and behavioral factors. Our findings strongly indicate a need for programs to increase uptake of HPV vaccination and provide HPV-related health education for sexual and gender minorities.
Predictors of anal high-risk HPV infection across time in a cohort of young adult sexual minority men and transgender women in New York City, 2015-2020
American Journal of Men's Health, 16 (4), 15579883221119084. doi: 10.1177/15579883221119084. PMCID: PMC9421230.