This study examines self-reported 30-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among 101 people living with HIV and substance use disorders (SUD) in New York City in terms of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – 5th Edition (DSM-5) SUD symptom clusters: impaired control, social impairment, risky use and pharmacological criteria. Overall, 60.4% met DSM-5 criteria for stimulant, 55.5% for alcohol, 34.7% for cannabis and 25.7% for opioid SUD. Of the 76 participants with a current ART prescription, 75.3% reported at least 90% 30-day adherence. Participants with vs. without alcohol SUD were significantly less likely to report ART adherence (64.3% vs. 88.2%, p = .017). Endorsement of social impairment significantly differed among adherent vs. non-adherent participants with alcohol SUDs (74.1% vs. 100%, p = .038) and with opioid SUDs (94.1% vs. 50.0%, p = .040). Understanding specific SUD symptom clusters may assist providers and patients in developing strategies to improve ART adherence.
DSM-5 substance use disorder symptom clusters and HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence