BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of socio-demographic disparities in outcomes of COVID-19, little is known about characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to public hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak.
OBJECTIVE: To assess demographics, comorbid conditions, and clinical factors associated with critical illness and mortality among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at a public hospital in New York City (NYC) during the first month of the COVID-19 outbreak.
DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to NYC Health + Hospitals / Bellevue Hospital from March 9th to April 8th, 2020.
RESULTS: A total of 337 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period. Primary analyses were conducted among those requiring supplemental oxygen (n = 270); half of these patients (135) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A majority were male (67.4%) and the median age was 58 years. Approximately one-third (32.6%) of hypoxic patients managed outside the ICU required non-rebreather or non-invasive ventilation. Requirement of renal replacement therapy occurred in 42.3% of ICU patients without baseline end-stage renal disease. Overall, 30-day mortality among hypoxic patients was 28.9% (53.3% in the ICU, 4.4% outside the ICU). In adjusted analyses, risk factors associated with mortality included dementia (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 2.11 95%CI 1.50-2.96), age 65 or older (aRR 1.97, 95%CI 1.31-2.95), obesity (aRR 1.37, 95%CI 1.07-1.74), and male sex (aRR 1.32, 95%CI 1.04-1.70).
CONCLUSION: COVID-19 demonstrated severe morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Modifications in care delivery outside the ICU allowed the hospital to effectively care for a surge of critically ill and severely hypoxic patients.
Comorbidity and clinical factors associated with COVID-19 critical illness and mortality at a large public hospital in New York City in the early phase of the pandemic (March-April 2020)
PLoS One, 15 (11), e0242760. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242760. PMCID: PMC7682848.