Primary care is understudied as a reentry drug and alcohol treatment setting. This study compared treatment retention and opioid misuse among opioid-dependent adults seeking buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance in an urban primary care clinic following release from jail versus community referrals. Postrelease patients were either (a) induced to buprenorphine in-jail as part of a clinical trial, or (b) seeking buprenorphine induction post release. From 2007 to 2008, N = 142 patients were new to primary care buprenorphine: n = 32 postrelease; n = 110 induced after community referral and without recent incarceration. Jail-released patients were more likely African American or Hispanic and uninsured. Treatment retention rates for postrelease (37%) versus community (30%) referrals were similar at 48 weeks. Rates of opioid positive urines and self-reported opioid misuse were also similar between groups. Postrelease patients in primary care buprenorphine treatment had equal treatment retention and rates of opioid abstinence versus community-referred patients.
Buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance following release from jail