Project dates: January 2009 - December 2009
Estonia had the highest HIV incidence rates in Europe when this project began, and Estonia’s HIV epidemic has largely been driven by injection drug use (IDU). Local studies showed that HIV prevalence rates were between 40%-90% among IDUs and that newly diagnosed cases were increasing among women. Studies conducted in the region including Estonia have shown that IDUs are sexually active with injection and non-injection partners, and use condoms infrequently. In addition, there are high rates of non-injection drug use among young adults. The study determined how the spread of HIV may be occurring in Estonia, and also developed new interventions to reduce HIV transmission to and among non-injection drug users. Information from this research increased understanding of injection drug use and the HIV epidemic in Estonia, and improved interventions to reduce HIV transmission.
Socio-demographic factors, health risks and harms associated with early initiation of injection among people who inject drugs in Tallinn, Estonia: Evidence from cross-sectional surveys
International Journal of Drug Policy, 24 (2), 150-155. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2012.08.003. PMCID: PMC3566328.
Vorobjov S, Uuskula A, Des Jarlais DC, Abel-Ollo K, Talu A, Ruutel K (2012).
Multiple routes of drug administration and HIV risk among injecting drug users
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 42 (4), 413-420. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2011.09.014. PMCID: PMC3289756.