This study examined HIV injection- and sex-related risk behaviors among Puerto Rican drug injectors by gender, separately for those who were aware of being HIV positive and those who believed they were seronegative or were unaware of their serostatus. The participants (N = 873: 561 in New York; 312 in Puerto Rico) were recruited from January 1998 to July 1999 in the two sites by street outreach workers. Of the participants, 81% were males and 19% self-reported that they were previously told that they had been infected with HIV. Significant gender differences existed in injection and sexual risk behaviors in bivariate analyses. The factors related to HIV risk behaviors between males and females differed after controlling for the impacts of other variables in multivariate analyses. Self-efficacy for risk behaviors was significantly related to all of the HIV risk behaviors. Components of HIV prevention programs should include enhancing self-efficacy for reducing risk behaviors.
Gender differences in HIV risk behaviors among Puerto Rican drug injectors by awareness of HIV seropositive status