This study examines factors related to injection and noninjection drug use during the last incarceration among injection drug users in East Harlem, New York (n = 555), and Bayamon, Puerto Rico (n = 241). Injecting drugs during the last incarceration episode was more likely in the sample in Puerto Rico (31% vs. 12%, p < .001), and noninjection drug use was more likely in the New York sample (37% vs. 14%, p < .001). Gang affiliation and length of incarceration were related to injection and noninjection drug use. Interventions for incarcerated drug users, including harm reduction efforts and drug treatment programs, should be enhanced. Further study of the role of gangs in influencing inmate HIV risk behaviors should be undertaken.
Factors associated with injection and noninjection drug use during incarceration among Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York and Puerto Rico
Prison Journal, 85 (3), 329-342. doi: 10.1177/0032885505279373.